Green Bottle Fly The name green bottle fly (or greenbottle fly) is applied to numerous species of blowfly, in the genera Lucilia and Phaenicia (the latter is sometimes considered a subgenus of the former). These flies are found in most areas of the world, primarily the Western Hemisphere and especially California. and the most well-known species is the common greenbottle, Phaenicia sericata (or Lucilia sericata, depending on authority), though there are other common species such as Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia coeruleiviridis, and Lucilia illustris. The maggots of this fly are known to preferentially consume dead tissue while leaving live tissue intact, and so have been sold for use in maggot therapy, primarily during the years before the widespread use of antibiotics and medicines and in modern times due to a resurgence of medical literature documenting their effectiveness. These flies are known to lay eggs in cadaver tissue in the wild within hours after death. The developmental stage of their larvae in the cadaver can be used to accurately predict the time death occurred.
Cluster Fly The cluster flies are the genusPollenia in the blowfly family Calliphoridae. Unlike more familiar blow flies, such as the bluebottle genus Phormia, they do not present a health hazard because they do not lay eggs in human food. They are strictly parasitic on earthworms; the females lay their eggs near earthworm burrows, and the larvae then infest the worms. However, the flies are a nuisance; when the adults emerge in the late summer or autumn, they enter houses to hibernate, often in large numbers; they are difficult to eradicate because they favour inaccessible spaces such as roof and wall cavities. They are often seen on windows of little-used rooms. They are also sometimes known as attic flies.
Mayflies mayfly (order Ephemeroptera), any member of a group of insects known for their extremely short life spans and emergence in large numbers in the summer months. Other common names for the winged stages are shadfly, sandfly, dayfly, fishfly, and drake. The aquatic immature stage, called a nymph or naiad, is widely distributed in freshwater, although a few species can tolerate the brackish water of marine estuaries.
Fruit Fly If you have been seeing small flies or gnats in your kitchen, they're probably fruit flies. Fruit flies can be a problem year round, but are especially common during late summer/fall because they are attracted to ripened or fermenting fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes, melons, squash, grapes and other perishable items brought in from the garden are often the cause of an infestation developing indoors. Fruit flies are also attracted to rotting bananas, potatoes, onions and other unrefrigerated produce purchased at the grocery store. The best way to avoid problems with fruit flies is to eliminate sources of attraction. Produce which has ripened should be eaten, discarded or refrigerated. Cracked or damaged portions of fruits and vegetables should be cut away and discarded in the event that eggs or larvae are present in the wounded area. A single rotting potato or onion forgotten at the back of a closet, or fruit juice spillage under a refrigerator can breed thousands of fruit flies. So can a recycling bin stored in the basement which is never emptied or cleaned. People who can their own fruits and vegetables, or make wine, cider or beer should ensure that the containers are well sealed; otherwise, fruit flies will lay their eggs under the lid and the tiny larvae will enter the container upon hatching. Windows and doors should be equipped with tight-fitting (16 mesh) screens to help prevent adult fruit flies from entering from outdoors.
Phorid Fly These small flies (often called coffin flies or scuttle flies) are a diverse group with many different species. Here’s what you need to know to treat them. Physically, there are three traits that make the phorid stand out. First, phorids are known for their hunched back, which has earned them the name “humpback” fly. This trait, however, is not enough to definitively classify a specimen as a phorid since not all phorids have the humpback and a few non-phorids also share this characteristic. When you see a phorid wing, you will note that the first few veins are very thick or heavily sclerotized. The rest of the veins are very light and don’t seem to attach to anything. With very few exceptions, there are no cross-veins on phorid wings. Lastly, since not all phorids have the humpback and since tight, thick wing veins are common in other pests, the third indicator of the adult phorid is its enlarged second antennal segment. “If you’ve got the wing venation and an antennal segment like that, you’ve got a phorid A similar indicator is visible in the phorid pupae, which usually have unique respiratory horns that form during the end of the first stage of pupation. Because most phorids live underground, adults are known for their penetration skills. In order to get to and from that moist environment, they are able to burrow deep underground through cracks and crevices. As a result, most adult phorids are also light-attracted and will often be found in light traps.
Drain Fly Small flies that can infest homes include drain flies, fruit flies, fungus gnats, mosquitoes and midges. They can all enter from outdoors, but fruit flies, fungus gnats and drain flies can reproduce indoors and survive there indefinitely. The first step in controlling an infestation is to determine which of these pests is the problem. Drain flies are also called moth flies because of their fuzzy appearance. They are dark gray to black and found near sinks and tubs. This fly belongs to the family Psychodidae. Adult drain flies are small (1/6 to 1/5 inch long), dark, and densely covered with hairs. They hold their large wings roof-like over the body when at rest, giving them a moth-like appearance. They are weak fliers and fly only a few feet at a time. They are most active in the evening. Drain fly larvae are actually beneficial because they break down organic waste into water soluble compounds. Adult flies, however, are a nuisance. They cannot bite, but they may become so numerous indoors that they congregate at windows and around light fixtures, showers, bathtubs, sinks and floor drains. The key to solving a drain fly problem is to find and eliminate the source—that is, the areas where excess moisture and organic debris have built up.
Fungus Gnat Fungus gnats (Bradysia species) – also known as dark-winged fungus gnats, are small, mosquito-like insects often found in homes and offices, usually in the vicinity of houseplants. They are considered a nuisance when present in noticeable numbers, but the adults are harmless insects that do not bite. Fungus gnat larvae develop in the growing medium of houseplants and are considered minor pests of houseplants. Adults are 1/8 inch long, delicate, black flies with long legs and antennae. There is a distinct “Y-shaped” pattern on the forewings. The larvae are wormlike an translucent, with a black head capsule, and live in the gorwing medium of houseplants.
Stable Fly The stable fly, barn fly, biting house fly, dog fly, or power mower fly. Unlike most members of the family Muscidae, Stomoxys calcitrans and others of its genus suck blood from mammals. Now found worldwide, the species is considered to be of Eurasian origin. Adult -- The stable fly resembles the house fly but is more robust and aggressive and inflicts an irritating bite. About 6 or 8 mm long, it has 4 distinct, dark longitudinal stripes on the thorax and several dark spots on the abdomen with sharp mouthparts protruding from the head. Egg -- The egg is about 1 mm long and creamy white. It is curved on one side and straight and grooved on the other. Larva -- About 1.25 mm long, the young larva is translucent and difficult to see. It grows rapidly; the mature larva is about 11 to 12 mm long and pale yellow to creamy white in color. Pupa -- The full grown larval skin hardens to form the pupal case (puparium) in which the pupa develops. The puparium is soft and yellowish at first, but it soon becomes hard and reddish-brown. It is 4.25 to 6 mm long and wider at the head end. Hosts -- Cattle, horses, hogs, mules, dogs, cats, and man are attacked by stable flies.
House Fly The housefly (also house fly, house-fly or common housefly), Musca domestica, is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is the most common of all domestic flies, accounting for about 91% of all flies in human habitations, and indeed one of the most widely distributed insects, found all over the world. It is considered a pest that can carry serious diseases. House flies are 3/16 to 1/4 inch long with robust bodies and two clear wings. The thorax is marked with four dark stripes. Larvae are called maggots and are creamy-white and cone-shaped, with the hind end blunt and bearing breathing holes (spiracles) tapering to the head which bears black hook-like mouthparts. Adult flies have sponging-sucking mouthparts, with which they inject mainly liquid food or food dissolved with regurgitated saliva. Larvae have mouthparts(mandibles) used to tease apart decomposing organic materials. Larvae feed with the ends of the bodies bearing the breathing pores on the surface and their narrow heads imbedded deep in the food source. Just before completing larval development, they leave their food source in search of a dryer place to pupate.
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